Food Analyses Oilseed Analyses Entomological Services    
  Bacterial Analyses Plant Pathology Soil services    
           
 
 
 
 
Food Analyses
Cereal Grains
  Test weight:     Conducted for the determination of seed size and its boldness,
  Protein Contents: Protein is an important food nutrient, This test is conducted for determination of nutritional value of food materials.
  Wet Gluten/Dry Gluten: These tests are required to determine bread making quality of the cereal grains.
 

Moisture: Moisture content  is an important parameter which plays  a major role in microbial growth, insect pest proliferation and overall spoilage of the foods.

 

Foreign matter: It is conducted for determining  seed purity and quality.

 

Shrunken/broken grains This test is also conducted for seed purity and quality.

 

Sprouted grains

 

Insect damaged grain: It is conducted for determining damage index of the grains.

 

Viscosity: This measurement is done for fluid food materials to know the physical standard of the samples.

 

Unnatural odour/ flavour test: The test is performed to determine the spoilage/contamination of food materials by microbes/ chemicals during storage.

Food, Fruits, Vegetables and Feed
Physico-Chemical Test
 

Moisture   As discussed above

 

Ash/mineral matter: Minerals are also important food component and  its presence in proper amount in food is essential for strengthening defense mechanism in body against diseases..

 

Crud protein: Protein is an important food nutrient. This test is conducted for determination of nutritional value of fruits and vegetables.

 

Crud fats/oil: This test is important to know about the energy of food materials.

 

Crud fiber: This is the part of proximate composition of food.

 

Non-protein Nitrogen: it includes peptides, free amino acid etc. This test is conducted to determined the extant of damage of protein in  food during processing and storage.

 

Titratable Acidity (as Citric Acid) it is important quality parameter of food and food quality. Extent of acidity  is also important during storage of food materials.

 

Starch: This parameter is important for determination of caloric values of food products.

 

Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C). This is one of the  very important vitamins in fresh, dried food materials. Its deficiency in food causes scurvy disease.(Swelling/Bleeding of gum)

  β-carotene:  β-carotene is precursor of vitamin A. Its deficiency cause many abnormalities in human body. This test is essential to determine the nutritive value of food materials.
 

Total Carotenoids: Total Carotenoids are antioxidants. Its presence in the food prevents development of oxidation and is nutritionally important constituent of many foods.

 

Total Phenols: these are antioxidant and are important for particular characteristic of many foods/food products.

 

Total Pectin/pectin fraction: These are important for jelling property/thickness in various food products. It also acts as stabilizer for food products.

 

Catechin content: These are the major part of phenolic compounds, present in the tea.

 

Anthoxyanodine: These are the characteristic phenolic compounds, present in coloured fruits and vegetables.

 

Naragine: Naragine is classified as flavanon , especially found in citrus fruits, known to have anti-cancerous properties and impotent for its characteristic bitter taste

 

Lycopen: It is the precursor of β-carotene and impotent antioxidant as well as anti cancerous in nature,

 

pH/Acidity:

 

Alkalinity

 

Specific Gravity

 

Peroxide Value (POV): it is the best indicator of rancidity in fats/oils or fatty products. When POV increases the freshness of fat decreases.

 

Free fatty Acid (FFA): it is also indicator of freshness of oil/ fatty products. The fresh food has low FFA value, but increases during handling, processing and storage. The food prepared in such oil will render it unfit for human consumption.

 

Iodine Value   It indicates the saturation of fat/ oil.

 

Anisidine value This test is conducted for determining the secondary breakdown products in fai/ oil/ food. It convert fat into fatty acids, alcohol amd ester etc.

Bacterial Analysis
 

Coliform/E-coli It is an important group of pathogenic bacteria causing  several urinary and intestinal diseases in human body when present in food and drinking water..

 

Total Bacterial Count This test indicates bacterial contamination/ spoilage and hygienic status of food and food products.

 

Total Fungal Count This test also indicates fungal infestation/ spoilage of food products.            

Food Samples  Mineral Test

Phosphorus 

Minerals are important compMinerals are important component of body, required for different physiological functions. In minerals, there are two types of metals i.e. Essential and non-essential metals. A specified levels of essential metals are required for smooth running of the physiological functions of the body. The increase or decrease levels of these metals in food items causes different diseases. The non-essential includes the toxic metals e.g. lead, Cd, Nicle. Heavy metals, having density >4g/ cm3, include both essential and non-essential metals. In addition to food items, these elements can also be analyzed in other items for the quality of different commodities.onent of body, required for different physiological functions. In minerals, there are two types of metals i.e. Essential and non-essential metals. A specified levels of essential metals are required for smooth running of the physiological functions of the body. The increase or decrease levels of these metals in food items causes different diseases. The non-essential includes the toxic metals e.g. lead, Cd, Nicle. Heavy metals, having density >4g/ cm3, include both essential and non-essential metals. In addition to food items, these elements can also be analyzed in other items for the quality of different commodities.

Copper

Cobalt

Iron

Manganese

Zinc

Lead

Arsenic

Mineral Scavenger (Phytic Acid) determination in cereal/pulses

 
Water Analysis
Chemical  
 

Acidity

 

Alkalinity

 

pH

 

Specific Gravity

 

Total Dissolved Solid

Bacterial  
 

Coliform/E-coli: It is an important group of pathogenic bacteria causing several urinary and intestinal diseases in human body.

 

Total Bacterial Count This test indicates bacterial contamination/ spoilage and hygienic status of food and food products.

 

Total Fungal Count This test also indicates fungal infestation/spoilage of food products.            

 
Oilseed Analyses
 

Oil Contents by NIRS: Oil content is defined as the maximum    100 amount of material (lipid) that can be removed from the seed by extraction with specific solvents (usually hexane or petroleum ether). This test estimates the amount of oil, which can be obtained in the industrial crushing. NIR method gives very accurate and precise results when calibrated carefully.

 

Protein Contents by NIRS:Oilseed crops produce a meal after commercial extraction of the oil that is a valuable source of protein for compound feeds. The analysis of protein content is based on an estimation of the nitrogen in the seed. As protein is the major nitrogen containing component in seeds its content can be estimated by multiplying the nitrogen content by a factor (by convention, 6.25 for oilseeds). Some trading specifications call for protein to be specified as nitrogen or ammonium. Protein content in whole seeds is being estimated by NIR spectrometry with good precision at NIFA.

 

Moisture Contents by NIRS Already discussed

 

Fatty Acid Profile by NIRS: The functional and nutritional values of different vegetable oils are dependent on the nature of the different fatty acids, which are incorporated like building blocks into the oil and important components of fat and fatty products. Using NIR technology complete fatty acid profile can be obtained on as many as 300 samples per day.

 

Glucosinolates by NIRS:: Glucosinolates are natural components of canola, rapeseed, and mustard seed. These compounds are found in all Brassica vegetables (cabbage, radishes and cauliflower etc.) and are responsible for the desirable pungent odor and sharp flavor associated with these foodstuffs. Glucosinolates are also natural toxicants, being associated with goiter and liver damage. Glucosinolates contents in whole seeds of brassica are also determined on NIRS in oilseed lab at NIFA.

 
Plant Pathology
Wheat  
 

Adult Plant Resistance Test for Yellow Rust (Under Natural Conditions) This test is conducted to achieve sustainable resistance to disease in crops. It is often necessary to stay ahead of changing pathogens by searching for, understanding, and manipulating new sources of resistance. Efforts to breed cereals for resistance to rust resistance diseases have identified resistance that are expressed at seedling growth stages and that usually remain effective through out the life of the plants and resistances that are effective at adult plant growth stages only.

 

Adult Plant Resistance Test for Yellow Rust (Under Epidemic  Conditions                 Do                                               

 

Phenotypic marker Assessment Test for Durable Rust Resistance. Adult plant leaf tip necrosis is a phenotypic marker for durable rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29.

 

Slow Yellow RustingTest   A more durable resistance to rust involve slow rusting that affect fungal growth through a number mechanisms. High or near-immune levels of resistance in wheat to leaf rust and yellow rust can be achieved by pyramiding  between  4 to 5 slow rusting genes that have small to intermediate additive effects.

 

BYDV Natural Infection symptoms Test  BYDV is an emerging problem of wheat in Pakistan and field screening will help in identifying resistant sources for further development.

 

Multi-location Field Test for Identifying effect sources of resistance (two hot spot locations). To study the stability of effective sources of resistance over locations.

 

Fungal Disease Diagnosis and Advisory Service. Diagnosis of prevalent fungal diseases and suggestion.

Oilseed Brassica/Canola
 

Symptoms Based Diagnosis and Advisory Services for Alternaria Blight, white Rust, Powdery Mildew, Sclaerotinia stem and downy mildew. Symptom based study & confirmation of canola diseases and suggestion for their chemical control.

 

Germplasm screening Test for Alternaria Blight resistance (Under Natural Condition). Identification of resistance sources against Alternaria  blight of canola.

Seed Pathology  
 

Test for Black Point of Wheat and its forecast. Black point is an important seed disease of wheat. Its occurrence and forecast are important components of disease management.

 

Test for Kernel Bunt of Wheat and its forecast. Kernel bunt is an important seed disease of wheat which also has quarantine significance. Its occurrence and forecast are important components of disease management.

 
Entomological Services
 

Termites
Termite damage surveys in agricultural crops and buildings
Termite proofing services for buildings
Termite control in agrcultural crops and buildings

 

Biological control
Provision of Sitotroga cereallella and richogrammachinois cultures
Bio contorl of sugarcane borers
Bio control of Maize stem borer
Bio control Tomato fruit borer

  Fruit fly control
Provion of Methyle eugenol baited traps
 

Toxicology
Lab bioassays for toxicological studies
Field testing of insecticides

 
Soil Science
 

Protein contents in Cereals and pulses. Proteins are needed in the body for building and maintenance of tissues. Assessment of percent protein in seed determines the quality of seed.

 

Moisture. Water is essential to life and is a vital constituent of food and seeds with relatively low moisture contents can be stored for a longer period.

 

Phosphorus (ppm) in plant and soil samples Phosphorous is an essential part of ATP and ADP which are the energy currency of living cell and is a major nutrient required for plant growth. Determination of available P content in the test soil is necessary to know the fertilizer-P requirement of the plant.  

 

Nitrogen (%) in plant and soil: Nitrogen is an integral part of plants and animal bodies and is a major nutrient required for plan growth Determination of N in the test soil is necessary in order to know the appropriate dose of N fertilizer needed by the crops.    

 

Specific Rhizobial Counts per g of Soil (Plant infectivity test). Since rhizobia are a host specific organism, it is there fore, important to know the specific rhizobial counts |g of soil of that particular crop. If the population of indigenous rhizobia of that particular crop is less than 200/- per sample (1000|g of soil), than we need artificial inoculation,

 

CaCO3 : Water holding capacity, pH and availability of phosphorus and some micronutrients are affected by Ca CO3 contents in soil. (mixed dry ground representative sample is required)

 

pH:  pH determination is important to know soil reaction, salinity and also to know about nutrient availability.

 

Electrical Conductivity (EC): EC determination is important to know the total soluble salts and salinity of soil.

 

Potassium  Essential major element and greatly affect yield, quality and other nutrient utilization of plants,

 

OM/OC The content of OM|OC indicates many soil properties and nutrient supply to crops,.

 

 

 

 

 
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